Basic math symbols
Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition Example
= equal sign equality 5 = 2+3
not equal sign inequality 5 ≠ 4
> strict inequality greater than 5 > 4
< strict inequality less than 4 < 5
inequality greater than or equal to 5 ≥ 4
inequality less than or equal to 4 ≤ 5
( ) parentheses calculate expression inside first 2 × (3+5) = 16
[ ] brackets calculate expression inside first [(1+2)*(1+5)] = 18
+ plus sign addition 1 + 1 = 2
minus sign subtraction 2 − 1 = 1
± plus - minus both plus and minus operations 3 ± 5 = 8 and -2
minus - plus both minus and plus operations 3 ∓ 5 = -2 and 8
* asterisk multiplication 2 * 3 = 6
× multiplication sign multiplication 2 × 3 = 6
∙  multiplication dot multiplication 2 ∙ 3 = 6
÷ division sign / obelus division 6 ÷ 2 = 3
/ division slash division 6 / 2 = 3
horizontal line division / fraction line
mod modulo remainder calculation 7 mod 2 = 1
. period decimal point, decimal separator 2.56 = 2+56/100
a b power exponent 23 = 8
a^b caret exponent 2 ^ 3 = 8
a square root

a · a  = a

9 = ±3
3a cube root 3 a · 3a  · 3a  = a 38 = 2
4 a fourth root 4 a · 4a  · 4a  · 4a  = a 416 = ±2
na n-th root (radical)   for n=3, n8 = 2
% per-cent 1% = 1/100 10% × 30 = 3
per-mile 1‰ = 1/1000 = 0.1% 10‰ × 30 = 0.3
ppm parts-per-million 1ppm = 1/1000000 10ppm × 30 = 0.0003
ppb per-billion 1ppb = 1/1000000000 10ppb × 30 = 3×10-7
ppt per-trillion 1ppt = 10-12 10ppt × 30 = 3×10-10